The word "mindfulness" is coming up more and more in the popular vocabulary. What does it mean?
"Mindfulness" means simply a state of being aware. The practice of mindfulness is an element of Zen Buddhism that has been incorporated into some Western treatment programs, especially Dialectical Behavior Therapy. I can't comment on mindfulness as a spiritual practice because I am not Buddhist, but I can explain the ways it works psychotherapeutically: Focusing your attention on something stops anxious ruminations. Focusing for a prolonged period of time can induce a trance state, which is relaxing and also is a component of hypnotherapy. In addition, mindfulness can increase appreciation for the world around you.
Mindfulness is an essential part of meditation.
Marsha Linehan, the founder of Dialectical Behavior Therapy, developed a series of mindfulness exercises to help persons with Borderline Personality Disorder manage their emotions. Mindfulness is a component of DBT, along with interpersonal skills training and elements of cognitive therapy. Since Linehan developed DBT in the early 1990s its use has expanded and DBT is now used to treat people with anxiety, depression and PTSD. Here's an excerpt of a mindfulness exercise from Linehan's DBT workbook:
" `Awareness Exercises' 1. Awareness of the Positions of the Body: This can be practiced in any time and place. Begin to focus your attention on your breath. Breathe quietly and more deeply than usual. Be mindful of the position of your body, whether you are walking, standing, lying, or sitting down. Know where you walk, stand, lie, or sit. Be aware of the purpose of your position. For example, you might be conscious that you are standing on a green hillside in order to refresh yourself, to practice breathing, or just to stand. If there is no purpose, be aware that there is no purpose."
Another excerpt: "Awareness While Making Tea or Coffee: Prepare a pot of tea or coffee to serve a guest or to drink by yourself. Do each movement slowly, in awareness. Do not let one detail of your movements go by without being aware of it. Know that your hand lifts the pot by its handle. Know that you are pouring the fragrant, warm tea or coffee into the cup. Follow each step in awareness. Breathe gently and more deeply than usual. Take hold of your breath if your mind strays."
Mindfulness can help anxious or depressed persons get out of their inner world in which they may be dwelling on negative thoughts. Obsessive preoccupations are common in anxiety disorders and also for some persons with depression. These internal experiences often become disconnected from external reality. Mindfulness exercises can help re-connect the anxious or depressed person with the greater context of the world around them.
People who play sports or engage in artistic activities often practice mindfulness without realizing it. Perhaps that's why those activities are referred to as "recreation" (re-creation).
Too often we mindlessly engage in our daily activities. Eating mindlessly not only leads to weight gain but also denies oneself the pleasure of flavor, aroma and other sensory experiences of food. Many people walk through parks without fully appreciating the natural world around them.
On a vacation last year in Vermont I spent an hour in the afternoon doing nothing except sitting in a grassy area by the woods. I focused on the touch of the grass, the dark mystery of the woods, the blue sky, some unidentified plants and an occasional butterfly. I sat alone, which allowed me to experience the natural world without the distraction of conversation. I had the sensation of being in a timeless place in existence apart from daily life. In hypnotherapy, we often teach people to mentally escape to a "safe place" in their minds. But I believe real-life experiences may be necessary for many people to be able to imagine a safe place.
Anyone can benefit from mindfulness exercises and perhaps we all need them as an antidote to our frantic, distracted contemporary lifestyles.